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A fruit, translated from Latin fructus, means a soft, juicy or hard edible part of a plant in the form of a fruit that is formed from the ovary of carpels as a result of pollination of the flower, that is, its derivative. In other words, guided by botanico-anatomical meaning, fruit is the fruit of any plants and trees with seeds for offspring, in contrast to a vegetable, which is an overgrown herbaceous or root system (leaf, root) as a result of vegetation. It turns out that the word "fruit" should be considered a culinary term.
Fruit is very popular, appreciated for a bouquet of flavors, tender flesh, grain or kernel, pleasant to taste, and are an indispensable part of our diet. Nature has brought one of the greatest gifts to mankind in the form of a rainbow of colorful fruits, each fruit of which has its own unique nutritional value and is the power plant of minerals, vitamins, fiber and other medicinal elements.
Fruit is a home versatile person: a healer, a cook, a cosmetologist. Fruits are consumed by millions of people in the form of salads, soups, juices, jams, pickles. Fruit gifts are able to feed the hungry at the same time, and give drink to the thirsty, and charge with a good mood.
Vegetables are edible fruits and plant greens. And plants are grassy, since everything that grows on trees and bushes, it is customary to refer to fruits and berries. Vegetables are an important part of a person’s diet. In their composition, they contain vitamins, carbohydrates, natural sugars and other valuable elements necessary for the body. In summer they are the basis of popular diets, and in winter they are pleased in a canned form.
Depending on what part of the plant is used for food, vegetables are divided into root crops (carrots, radishes, turnips), tubers (potatoes, Jerusalem artichoke), pumpkin (cucumber, zucchini, pumpkin), nightshade (tomato, eggplant) and others. As a result of selection, new types of vegetables constantly appear in the world. For example, yellow beets are a habitual vegetable of unusual color. Of course, it is difficult to imagine, for example, beetroot yellow, but there is one undeniable advantage for the novelty - it does not spoil hands when cooking.
Beef - cattle meat. The word comes from the ancient Russian "govyado", meaning "cattle."
Beef is consumed in fried, boiled, stewed, smoked form, and goes to the production of minced meat for meatballs, hamburgers and ravioli. To clear broths and soups most best to use rump with bone, which is called "sugar", as well as the rear of the rump, sirloin with bone, shoulder and chuck carcasses. For cabbage soup and borscht need more fatty meat (front brisket, so-called "chёlyshko"). From the shank is cooked soup, but it should be borne in mind that this part of the carcass cooked longer and often shank soup gets peculiar smell and stickiness characteristic of the jellies. Prepare soups and rib section of the shoulder portion of the carcass and the flank.
Grilled meat dishes are best prepared from sirloin, rump inside of the (so-called "silverside"), the top of the sirloin and tenderloin (pulp, located along the spinal vertebrae).
Stew can be prepared from the rump and outer part of the front of the brisket. Beef Stroganoff - from the inside of the top of the rump and sirloin.
For the chopped products - cutlets, meatballs, zrazy, meatballs, roll, for stuffing and fillings - can use the lower part of the sirloin, rump, the shoulder portion, flank, shank with pulp and Zrazy. Jellies made from the shank.
Since ancient times, various birds play an important role in human nutrition, and today remains one of the main sources of animal protein. Breeding poultry is a separate branch of agriculture - poultry. For poultry bred meat breeds of chickens, ducks, geese, domestic turkeys, guinea fowls and quails, pheasants, ostriches and meat pigeons. In addition to the poultry man eats many other wild species of birds that are not related to game birds produced on the hunt. For example, the ancient Greeks ate wood pigeons, crows, owls and gulls, imported from Africa flamingos. In France, the XVI century the pigeons ate in writing, along with other wild birds (such as curlew and egrets). During these times, tits, lapwings, blackbirds, robins, finches, sparrows, larks and jays were considered excellent food throughout Europe. Today songbirds account for a significant part of the diet of the inhabitants of Asia, Africa, Latin America and certain parts of the Mediterranean, with almost eaten elsewhere.
Pasta - a small tubular products, which are prepared from dried dough, mixed with wheat flour and water. The word came from the Italian "maccheroni", and it was formed from the word "maccaruni", which belongs to a completely different language - Sicilian. In translation, it means "kneaded dough". Macaroni is distinguished in shape, it can be horns, feathers, shells, noodles, vermicelli, butterflies, spirals, etc. However, such a classification is only in the CIS countries, where the word macaroni is understood as all products in general, but in Italian this word has a specific meaning - short tubes.
There are two main recipes for pasta: the first option involves the presence of flour of solid varieties of wheat, and the second - the addition of eggs in the dough. The most high-quality pasta - these are those that have a significant smoothness, cream tint, on the fracture they are vitreous. Cook these products need to follow strict rules. The pan should be necessarily with a thick bottom. The water in which they are cooked, you need to salt at the time of boiling, but not later. And, most importantly, in no case wash the finished product with water. This Soviet habit completely destroys all useful substances and taste qualities. Italians themselves are very fond of not eating macaroni until the end. This is called the aldente, when in the middle itself the dough remains slightly damp, but it should not stick to the teeth. If the pasta is cooked correctly, they are very well absorbed by the body. Garnish from pasta is very popular. After all, pasta is perfectly combined with a variety of sauces: mushroom, tomato, vegetable, meat. They are suitable for almost any seafood, nuts and bacon, and without grated cheese they are generally difficult to imagine. With pasta make casseroles, warm salads and soups. No restaurant menu can do without such dishes as: spaghetti Bolognese, macaroni in Milanese or in a Fleet manner, pasta Carbonara, lasagna and many others.
Dairy products are known to each of us from a deep childhood. Ryazhenka, kefir, ice cream, sour cream, cottage cheese - there is hardly a person who is not familiar with them.
And besides the most famous in the world, we know of at least hundreds of original dairy products (we will not even consider different sorts of cheese, although many of them are prepared according to completely different technologies). And each of them has some or other nutritional properties and contains its own specific set of nutrients.
Nevertheless, the principles of cooking even the most common dairy products for many of us are a secret. Many, for example, do not know how the way to prepare a burger from the preparation of yogurt or cottage cheese - from sour cream differs. The most famous and common products of milk separation are cream and butter. The main distinguishing feature of separation products is the preservation of their milk properties. After all, there are no chemical reactions here. And if such reactions in milk took place, then they produce dairy products. The most famous sour-milk products are: curdled milk, cottage cheese, cheese, sour cream, kefir and yogurt, fermented baked milk, ayran, kumis. And you can not, of course, ignore the types of dairy products that are obtained using modern technology. After all, their popularity is often not inferior to the popularity of traditional products. These are the products of milk heat treatment: melted milk, pasteurized milk and ice cream. And the products of milk concentration, which are obtained, as a rule, by the separation of water from milk. It is condensed milk and milk powder.